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D&D Dictionary

Popular deactivation and decommissioning terms and their definitions.

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    Acid Digestion

    A method to undergo analysis. Acid is added to the metal sample and heated until it appears the solid metal has fully dissolved. This sample can then be diluted down with an acid/water mixture and analyzed against an acid/water background solution for comparison.

    Administrative Record

    A collection of documents established in compliance with the requirements set forth in section 113(k) of CERCLA, as amended, consisting of information upon which the CERCLA lead agency bases its decision on the selection of response actions.

    Agreement State

     Any State with which the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has entered into an agreement giving the State authority to regulate radioactive materials covered by the agreement in accordance with Section 274.b of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.


     An acronym for “As Low As Reasonably Achievable,” which means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to ionizing radiation as far below the dose limits as practical, consistent with the purpose for which the licensed activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest.

    Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs)

    (1) Those cleanup standards, standards of control, and other substantive requirements, criteria, or limitations promulgated under federal environmental, state environmental, or facility siting laws that specifically address a hazardous substance, pollutant, contaminant, remedial action, location, or other circumstance found at a CERCLA site.


     A set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties. Asbestos is commercially used because of its important features like sound absorption, average tensile strength, and its resistance to heat, electrical and chemical damage.

    Atomic Energy Act

     The Act (1954) which placed production and control of nuclear materials within a civilian agency, originally the Atomic Energy Commission, now the Department of Energy.

    Atomic Reactor

     A kind of furnace used in nuclear power stations, where nuclear energy is transformed into heat energy.

    Authorization Basis:

     Those aspects of the facility design basis and operational requirements relied upon by DOE to authorize operation. They are considered to be important to the safety of facility operations. The authorization basis is described in documents such as the facility Safety Analysis Report and other safety analyses, Hazard Classification Documents, Technical Safety Requirements, DOE-issued safety evaluation reports, and facility-specific commitments made in order to comply with DOE Orders or policies.


     A line that serves as the basis for measurements or for construction. Also, it can be an initial set of critical observations or data used for comparison or control.


    An optical device consisting of a rigid or flexible tube with an eyepiece on one end, an objective lens on the other linked together by a relay optical system in between. Optical fiber is surrounding around the optical system for illumination of remote objects.

    Byproduct Material

    The tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processed primarily for its source material content.


    Facility or site sampling, monitoring and analysis activities to determine the extent and nature of contamination. Characterization provides the basis for acquiring the necessary technical information to select an appropriate cleanup alternative; to prepare a decommissioning plan for safe decommissioning; and to estimate the volume of waste to be generated.


     A cutting tool with a sharpened edge at the end of a metal blade, used in dressing, shaping, or working a solid material such as wood, stone, or metal

    Clean Air Act

    The purpose of this Act is to "protect and enhance the quality of the Nation's air resources." Its primary application is through permits to regulate new and existing facilities. Of increasing importance are the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs).

    Clean Water Act of 1977

     Amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act passed in 1956. Its objective is to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters." The Act's major enforcement tool is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit.

    Community Relations Plan

     A plan for all responses lasting longer than six months that addresses local citizens’ and officials’ concerns about a hazardous waste release and integrates community relations activities into the technical response at a site.

    Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

    Federal statute (also known as Superfund) enacted in 1980 and reauthorized in 1986, that provides the statutory authority for cleanup of hazardous substances that could endanger public health, welfare, or the environment.

    Concrete Shaver

     A self-propelled, walk-behind electric-powered shaving machine that uses diamonds impregnated on drum-mounted blades to shave concrete surfaces with extremely accurate tolerances.  The shaver is suitable for flat (or slightly curved) walls and floors.

    Concrete Spaller

     A hand held tool that is used for decontaminating flat or slightly curved concrete wall and floor surfaces, obtaining concrete samples, and in-depth removal from cracks in concrete. It is depicted in the figure below.

    Contaminated Facilities

     DOE facilities that have structural components and/or systems contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive substances, including radionuclides. This definition excludes facilities that contain no residual hazardous substances other than those present in building materials and components, such as asbestos-containing material, lead-based paint, or PCB-containing equipment.


     Unwanted radioactive and/or hazardous material which is disbursed on or in equipment, structures, object, soil or water. Contamination may be either surface or volumetric (i.e., contamination incorporated within a solid material).

    Corrugated Metal

     Corrugated metal is commonly aluminum, iron or steel that is manufactured with folds to create a uniform series of ridges and valleys. The measure between the folds determines the flexibility of the piece, while the overall corrugation adds to its durability.


     A machine that lifts heavy objects and also shifts them horizontally. Different types of crane available include: Jib crane – Jib is a long beam that is structurally reinforced so that it will not bend.


     The process of placing a facility in a stable and known condition including the removal of hazardous and radioactive materials to ensure adequate protection of the worker, public health and safety, and the environment, thereby limiting the long-term cost of surveillance and maintenance.

    Deactivation Final Report

     The document prepared after the technical work has been performed and verified and that describes the deactivation project activities, accomplishments, final facility status, and cost and perfor


     Takes place after deactivation and includes surveillance and maintenance, decontamination, and/or dismantlement. These actions are taken at the end of the life of a facility to retire it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and the public and protection of the environment.

    Decommissioning Final Report

     The document prepared after the technical work has been performed and verified and that describes the decommissioning project activities, accomplishments, final facility status, and cost and performance information.

    Decommissioning Framework

    The series of action steps to be followed in completing the decommissioning of a contaminated DOE surplus facility as described in the Decommissioning Implementation Guide. The same framework applies whether the decommissioning is being performed under CERCLA or outside the CERCLA arena.

    Decommissioning Plan

    The documentation that specifies the decommissioning work to be done. A decommissioning plan or equivalent documentation is required for nuclear facilities under DOE


     The removal or reduction of residual radioactive and hazardous materials by mechanical, chemical or other techniques to achieve a stated objective or end condit


     A method of removal of nitric acid.


     The disassembly or demolition and removal of any structure, system, or component during decommissioning and satisfactory interim or long-term disposal of the residue from all or portions of a fa


     Final placement or destruction of toxic, radioactive, or other waste, surplus or banned pesticides or other chemicals, polluted soils, and drums containing hazardous materials from removal actions or accidental releases.


     Those activities that follow completion of program mission, including, but not limited to, surveillance and maintenance, deactivation, and decommissioning.


     The process of making holes through solid materials. It can be done using drilling machines, lathes, boring machines, power driven hand drills, etc. The principle motion used in drilling is rotary motion and the feed motion is linear.


     An electrical conductor through which an electric current enters or leaves a conducting medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum. It is used to make contact with a non-metallic part of the circuit.

    Electrode Heater

    Electrical heating equipment without a chamber, in which a charge is heated by an electrode. Commonly used for heating water, an electrode heater does not use wire-wound resistance; the liquid itself acts as the resistance.

    End Effectors

    A device at the end of the robotic arm, designed to interact with the environment. The exact nature of the device depends on the application of the robot.


     The detailed specification of conditions to be achieved for a facility’s spaces, systems and major equipment. Fundamental to the determination of end points is risk reduction through elimination or stabilization of hazards, effective facility containment and facility monitoring and control.


    A fundamental entity of nature that is transferred between parts of a system in the production of physical change within the system and usually regarded as the capacity for doing work.

    Environmental Assessment

     A written environmental analysis which is prepared pursuant to National Environmental Policy Act to determine whether a federal action would significantly affect the environment and thus require preparation of a more detailed environmental impact statement.

    Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

     A document required for Federal Agencies by the National Environmental Policy Act for major project or legislative proposals significantly affecting the environment. A tool for decision making, it describes the positive and negative effects of the undertaking and lists alternative actions.

    Environmental Remediation

    Cleanup and remediation of sites contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous substances during past DOE production activities.


    Land, buildings, and other structures, their functional systems and equipment, and other fixed systems and equipment installed therein, including site development features outside the plant, such as landscaping, roads, walks, and parking areas; outside lighting and communication systems; central utility plants; utilities supply and distribution systems; and other physical plant features.

    Federally Permitted Releases

     The term "Federally permitted release" means, (A) discharges in compliance with a permit under Section 1342 of title 33, (B) discharges resulting from circumstances identified and reviewed and made part of the public record with respect to a permit issued or modified under Section 1342 of title 33 and subject to a condition of such permit, (C) continuous or anticipated intermittent discharges from a point source, identified in a permit or permit application under Section 1342 of title 33, which are caused by events occurring within the scope of relevant operating or treatment systems, (D) discharges in compliance with a legally enforceable permit under Section 1344 of title 33, (E) releases in compliance with a legally enforceable final permit issued pursuant to Section 3005(a) through (d) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.


    An arrangement of parallel glass fibers with an objective lens on one end and an eyepiece at the other; the assembly can be bent as required to view objects that are inaccessible for direct viewing or to view components those are tightly packed.


     Filtration is the process of passing a liquid or gas through a filter or porous bed of materials in order to remove solid particles.


    The emission of electromagnetic radiation, usually visible light, caused by excitation of atoms in a material, which then re-emit almost immediately (within about 10-8 seconds). The initial excitation is usually caused by absorption of energy from incident radiation or particles, such as X-rays or electrons.


     A structure in which heat is produced by combustion or other means. Different furnaces common in use in industries include: Coal furnace - Chemical energy is transformed into heat by burning fuels such as coal, wood, oil, and hydrocarbon gases.

    Gamma Ray Imaging

     Gamma-ray imaging is a technique to capture the distribution of radioactive decay within a body or from a distant source by detecting the emitted gamma rays.


     A covering for hands having separate sections for each of the fingers and thumb. It protects and comforts hands against cold or heat, damage by friction, abrasion etc. Gloves are made of materials including cloth, knitted or felted wool, leather, rubber, latex, neoprene, and metal.

    Graded Approach

     The depth of detail required and the magnitude of resources expended for a particular management element to be tailored to be commensurate with the element's relative importance to safety, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic importance, magnitude of the hazard, financial impact, and/or other facility-specific requirements.

    Graphite Electrode

     A type of electrode that carries electricity to melt scrap iron and steel, in electric arc furnace and steel furnaces. Their size can vary up to 11 ft. long and 30 in. in diameter. They are made from petroleum coke after it is mixed with coal tar pitch, extruded and shaped, baked to carbonize the binder (pitch), and then graphitized by heating it to temperatures approaching 3000 °C that converts carbon to graphite.


     A construction material used to embed the reinforcing bars on the walls, connect sections of pre-cast concrete, fill voids, and seal joints. Grout is composed of water, sand, cement, color tint, and often fine gravel.

    Hazard Categories

     Conditions created by the presence of hazards that are classified as: 1) Category 1 are those with a potential for significant offsite consequences; 2) Category 2 are those with a potential for

    Hazardous Substance

     Used synonymously with the term "hazardous material," this includes any substance designated or reflected in 29 CFR 1910.120, to which exposure may result in adverse affects to the worker, public, or environment including: 1) any substance defined under Section 101(14) of CERCLA; 2) any biological agent and other disease-causing agent that after release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into any person, either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in such persons or their offsprings; 3) any substance listed by the U.

    Hazardous Waste

     Any solid waste; concentration; or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics that may; (A) cause, or significantly contribute to, an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible or incapacitating reversible, illness; or (B) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.

    Hazardous Waste Constituent

     A constituent that causes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Administrator to list the hazardous waste in part 261, subpart D, of 40 CFR 260; or a constituent listed in table 1 of 40 CFR

    Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER)

     Regulations established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to govern the health and safety of employees engaged in hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

    Health and Safety Plan (HASP)

     A site plan, required by the HAZWOPER regulations and prepared and followed by any employer whose workers engage in hazardous waste operations, which addresses the safety and health hazards of each phase of site operation and includes the requirements and procedures for employee protection.

    HEPA Vacuum

    A vacuum cleaner that makes use of a HEPA filter (high efficiency particulate air) to clean up minute dust and germs. To qualify as HEPA, an air filter must remove 99.97% of all particles greater than 0.3 micrometre from the air that passes through.

    High-Level Waste

     The highly radioactive waste material that results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, including liquid waste produces directly in reprocessing and any solid waste derived from the liquid, that contains a combination of transuranic waste and fission products in concentrations high enough to require permanent isolation.


     A horizontal, vertical and overhead concrete removal technique that utilizes high-pressure water to remove deteriorated and sound concrete without causing any damage. It is effective in removing concrete from around embedded metal elements such as reinforcing steel, expansion joints, anchorages, conduits, shear connectors, and shear studs.

    Information Repository

     A file containing current information, technical reports, and reference documents regarding a CERCLA site. The information repository is usually located in a public building that is convenient for local residents, such as a public school, library, or city hall.

    Interim Status

    The period during which a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility, which was in existence as of November 19, 1980, may continue to operate without an approved RCRA permit. To qualify for interim status a facility must have filed a Part A of the RCRA permit application.

    Isometric Drawing

     A method of graphic representation of three-dimensional objects, used by engineers, technical illustrators, and architects.

    Laser Ablation

    Laser ablation is the process of removing material from a solid or a liquid surface by irradiating it with a laser beam. It depends on the nature of the material and its ability to absorb energy. When a low laser beam acts on the surface, then the surface material is heated by the absorbed laser energy and evaporates; whereas with a high laser beam, the material gets converted to plasma.


     The life of an asset from planning through acquisition, maintenance, operation, and disposition.

    Liquid Scintillation Counting

       A standard method for detecting and measuring radiation from beta-emitting nuclides. In this method, samples are dissolved in the solvents containing aromatic solvents and scintillators (a material that emits light when excited by an ionizing radiation).

    Local Agreement

     An interagency agreement, tri-party agreement or other understanding that establishes a local relationship between DOE, EPA, and the State on environmental rest

    Low-Level Waste

     Radioactive waste not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material.

    Metal Detector

     A device that responds to metal that may not be readily noticeable. A metal detector has an oscillator which produces an alternating current; this current is made to pass through a coil, which in turn produces an alternating magnetic field.

    Mixed Waste

    Contains both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    National Contingency Plan (NCP)

     A short title for the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The NCP, 40 CFR Part 300, outlines the responsibilities and authorities for responding to releases into the environment of hazardous substances and other pollutants and contaminants under the statutory authority of CERCLA and section 311 of the Clean Water Act.

    National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs)

     The Clean Air Act establishes limits on the release of hazardous pollutants for which no ambient air quality standard is applicable. Under the March 7, 1989 proposed ruling NESHAPs will also address radioactive releases to the air.

    National Environmental Policy Act of 1969

     The Act which established the requirements for conducting environmental reviews of Federal actions that have the potential for significant impact on the human environment.

    National Priorities List (NPL)

     The Environmental Protection Agency's list of the most serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites identified for possible long-term remedial action under CERCLA (Superfund). A site must be on the NPL to receive money from the Trust Fund for remedial action.

    National Response Center:

    The National Communications Center, located at U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, continuously manned for handling activities related to CERCLA response actions. The National Response Center acts as the single point of contact for all pollution incident reporting, and as the National Response Team Communications Center.

    Natural Resource Trustees

     Federal officials designated by the President to act on behalf of the public as trustees for natural resources when there is injury to, destruction of, loss of, or threat to natural resources as a result of a release of a hazardous substance or a discharge of oil.


     A tool for cutting sheet metal with minimal variation. Nibblers can be manually handled or powered. Power nibblers are powered by compressed air.

    Non-nuclear Facility

     Those activities, processes, or operations that may involve hazardous substances in such forms or concentration that a potential danger exists to cause illness, injury, or death to personnel within the facility site boundary or members of the public.

    Non-time-critical Removal Action

     This is a type of response action recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency appropriate for addressing hazardous substance threats where a planning horizon of six months or more is appropriate. Removal responses, including non-time-critical removals, are the subject of 40 CFR 300.

    Nuclear Facility

     Those activities, processes, or operations that involve radioactive materials or fissionable materials in such form, quantity, or concentration that a nuclear hazard potentially exists to the employees or general public.


    The same or geographically contiguous property which may be divided by public or private right-of-way, provided the entrance and exit between the properties is at a cross-roads intersection, and access is by crossing as opposed to going along, the right-of-way.

    Oxyacetalene Torch

     A gas torch that burns a mixture of acetylene and oxygen to produce a high-temperature flame (3,000°C or 5,400°F) that can weld or cut metal.

    Personal Protective Suit

     Refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles or other equipment that is designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury by physical hazards, electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, particulate matter and infection.


    The science of generating and transmitting light. It deals with light starting in the infrared range, through visible light to ultraviolet light at the highest frequency.

    Pipe Insulation

     A thermal insulation used on pipework for purposes of condensation control, prevent freezing, energy savings, protection from extreme temperatures, prevention of freezing, and control of noise. Materials may include rigid foam, polyethylene, mineral or glass wool, and a varity of other materials.

    Preliminary Assessment

    The process of collecting and reviewing available information about a known or suspected waste site or release

    Quality Assurance/Quality Control

     A system of procedures, checks, audits, and corrective activities to ensure that all research design and performance, environmental monitoring and sampling, and other technical and reporting actions are of the appropriate quality.


     Radball is a 140 mm (5½”) diameter deployable, passive, non-electrical gamma hot-spot imaging device that offers a 360 degree view of the deployment area. This device has two constituents, a gamma radiation sensitive inner core placed inside spherical tungsten and an outer collimation sheet.

    RCRA-authorized State

     A State that has applied and been found qualified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to take over administration and enforcement within the State's boundaries of the RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulatory program in accordance with 40 CFR Part 271, Requirements for Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Programs.

    Readiness Review

     A management review of documents, organizational structure, personnel qualifications, physical preparations and other factors to confirm that decommissioning operations (removal action, if under CERCLA) are ready to proceed.


     The spilling,, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant into the environment. This includes the abandonment or disposal of barrels or other closed receptacles containing hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants.

    Remedial Action

     Activities initiated to assess and clean up inactive DOE facilities or waste sites.

    Removal Action

     The cleanup or removal of released hazardous substances from the environment, such actions as may be necessarily taken in the event of the threat of a release..., such actions as may be necessary to monitor, assess, and evaluate the release or threat of release.

    Reportable Quantity

     The amount or quantity of substances defined in 40 CFR 302 for which notification of release to the environment is required.

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

     RCRA, an amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, was passed in 1976 to address the problem of how to safely dispose of municipal and industrial solid waste generated nationwide. it establishes\d a national policy to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste and conduct treatment, storage, or disposal to minimize its threat.

    Risk Assessment

     The qualitative and quantitative evaluation performed in an effort to define the risk posed to human health and/or the environment by the presence or potential presence and/or the use of specifi


    A branch of science and engineering dealing with the study of robots. It is involved with a robot's design, manufacture, application, and structural disposition.

    Rotary Hammer Drill

     An electric drill that is used to drill holes in masonry or concrete.


    The act, process or technique of selecting and collecting an appropriate sample, such as an environmental sample, for characterization and analysis.

    Sampling and Analysis Plans

     If environmental samples are to be collected during a removal action, DOE must develop a sampling and analysis plan that provides a process for obtaining data of sufficient quality and quantity to satisfy data needs.

    Sanitary Waste

     Waste, such as garbage, that is generated by normal housekeeping activities and is not hazardous or radioactive. The waste is disposed of in sanitary landfills. Sanitary waste also includes liquids which are treated in sewage treatment plants.


     A cutting tool having a thin, flat metal blade, band, or stiff plate with continuous cutting teeth along the edge. It is used mainly for cutting metals, wood or other hard materials. Usually saws have cutting blades with teeth, but some saws have   an abrasive diamond disk or steel cable-like blades; such saws are used to cut materials like stone and glass.


    A compressed air-powered machine which is used to remove a thin layer of concrete from a structure. A scabbler has many heads,  each with several carbide or steel tips that peck at the concrete. It operates by pounding a number of tipped rods down onto the concrete surface in rapid succession.

    Shot Blasting

     Shot blasting forcibly propels a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface, or remove surface cont


     A geographic entity comprising leased or owned land, buildings, or other structures required to perform program activities.

    Site Inspection

    The collection of information from a CERCLA (Superfund) site to determine the extent and severity of hazards posed by the site. It follows a preliminary assessment and is more extensive.


     Sludge is residual, semi-solid sediment left from industrial waste water or sewage treatment processes.

    Solid Waste

     Non-liquid, non-soluble material ranging from municipal garbage to industrial waste that contains complex, and sometimes hazardous, substances. Solid waste also includes sewage sludge, agricultural refuse, demolition wastes, and residues.

    Solid Waste Management Unit

     Any discernible unit at which solid wastes have been placed at any time, irrespective of whether the unit was intended for the management of solid or hazardous wastes. Such units include any area at a facility where solid wastes have been routinely and systematically released.

    Source Material

     Uranium or thorium, other than special nuclear material or ores which contain by weight 0.05 percent or more of uranium or thorium, or any combination of these.

    Special Nuclear Material

     Plutonium, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material which the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, pursuant to the provisions of Section 2071 of title 42 U.

    Surveillance and Maintenance

     These activities are conducted through-out the facility life cycle phase including when a facility is not operating and is not expected to operate again and continues until phased out during decommissioning. Activities include providing in a cost effective manner periodic inspections and maintenance of structures, systems and equipment necessary for the satisfactory containment of contamination and protection of workers, the public and the environment.


     A group of related components required to perform a  task.


    A tank is a container for the storage or transportation of liquids, liquefied gases, or free-flowing substances, such as petroleum products, milk, or cement. Tanks can be placed underground, sunken or above ground.


    The application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems, especially in industry and commerce.

    Toxic Substance Control Act

     TSCA was enacted was enacted in 1976 to protect human health and the environment from unreasonable risk due to exposure to, manufacture, distribution, use or disposal of substances containing toxic chemicals. For example, under TSCA, any hazardous waste that contains more than 50 parts per million of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are subject to regulations under this Act.

    Transfer of Facilities

     The process of transferring programmatic and financial responsibility of land and/or facilities from one Program Office to another.

    Transuranic Waste

    Waste that is contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranic nuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years and concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram of waste. Contact-handled TRU waste does not require shielding and has a surface dose rate of less than 200 millirem per hour.

    Waste Minimization

    The reduction, to the extent feasible, of radioactive and hazardous waste that is generated before treatment, storage, or disposal of the waste. Waste minimization includes any source reduction or recycling activity that results in either: 1) reduction of total volume of hazardous waste; 2) reduction of toxicity of hazardous waste; or 3) both.

    X-ray Tube

     An electron tube that produces X rays by accelerating electrons to a high velocity with a high-voltage field and causing them to collide with a target, the anode plate. This tube consists of a source of electrons, the cathode, which is usually a heated filament, and a thermally rugged anode, usually of tungsten, which is enclosed in an evacuated glass envelope.
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